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Tasnudert : anekcum ɣer temhazt n telmas d imuhal n Darwin

Sɣur Samir Tighzert

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Amagrad-a ur yesḍamiε ara ad d-yefk isalli ikemlen deg usentel meqqren iɣef i d-yewwi, imi mazal lexṣaṣ ama deg tutlayt neɣ tirmit n tira deg tussna s teqbaylit. Ihi am akken i d-yedda deg uzwel, d asalu kan i neεreḍ ad nerẓ yess deg uḥric n tesnudert (biologie), ladɣa deg usentel-a usdid : tamhazt n telmas (évolution des espèces). D acu ɣas akken tella deg-s tanga tapidagujit ara yaf yiwen, nessaram d ayen ara itekkin daɣ i ureṣṣi n llsas n tussna s teqbaylit d tmaziɣt s umata.

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Llsas n Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin, amassan n ugama aglizi, ilul di Shopshire ass n 12 deg furar1809, yemmut di  Dawne ass n 19 deg yebrir 1882. Imahilen-is ɣef temhazt[1]n telmas[2] timuddirin ḍḥan-d d wid yessegrawlen tasnudert segmi d-yessufeɣ adlis-is Iẓuran n telmas deg useggas n 1859. Dɣa asmi yella icaε yisem-is gar imassanen s inadiyen iga, i yessker yiwet n turda[3] i d-yeqqaren belli tilmas akk timuddirn yellan zemrent ad ilint seg yiwen neɣ si kra kan n ijaddiyen ucriken i d-uɣent aẓar armi mehzent ɣef teɣzi n wakud, s twisi n wayen iwumi qqaren afran agaman[4].260px-Charles_Darwin_1880

Di tilawt, mačči d netta i yennan d amezwaru belli amdan yeqqers-d seg yibki (aḥallum, iddew), acku yezwar-it ɣer waya Lamarck s xemsin iseggasen, ulamma tazrawt[5]-is netta (Darwin) ɣef tikti-nni daɣ i tettawi yerna tessegza lumuṛ s telqey ; baqi segmi d-yeffeɣ udlis-nni-ines yuɣal yegget fell-as wawal d unṭag deg ijernanen d wanda nniḍen, ladɣa si tamiwin timasɣanin (imdeyynen) i iwalan deg-s ankaṛ n wamek i yettwassen uxlaq n ddunit d wayen yettidiren, sɣur Rebbi, meḥsub werǧin i d-yella Adem neɣ Ḥewwa am akken i t-id-nnant tektabin tuɣrisin.  Ihi ur d-dduklen yid-s imassanen s tidet armi d aseggas 1870 mi rnan walan tidet-is ɣer wiyaḍ deg wayen yerzan tiẓri n temhazt (théorie d’évolution) i d-yessumer, dɣa din i tebda tdarwinẓrit tettaɣ abrid deg ubeddel n tmuɣliwin tinudranin armi d-wwḍen wallalen imaynuten di lqern wiss 20 i itebbten awal-is ula ɣef ufran agaman i yellan tuɣ yezzi-yas ccekk.

M’akken i d-yesnulfa tussan-yi tamaynut ara yuɣalen d taxatart maḍi syin d afella,  Darwin yella d amnadi kan amecṭuḥ ifukken leqraya-s deg uɣiwen[6] n Ṭṭebba n tesdawit n Edambourg, ihi yedda deg uɣarrabu[7] Beagle i yeffɣen  deg tuɣḍaṭ[8] unadi i tikelt tis snat, ɣer tnila n Temrikt n Wenẓul, iruḥ s yisem-is d amesnakal[9] kan imi d wayen i d-yelha imir. Maca ayen i t-iwellhen tikelt tamezwarut, d ayen iɣer yerra tamawt deg tgzirin n Galápagos ɣef kra n telmas n yiwen wefrux. Afrux-a llant kra n tlemas-is ɣur-neɣ ; deg tama n usammar n Bgayet qqaren-as abulkettan, deg Ǧerǧer abuferriw neɣ amenferriw (pinson). Ihi mi imuqel yaf sin ispisimanen i d-yekkan si snat tegzirin yemqaraben, ttemcabin deg kullec ala deg uqamum : yiwen zur, wayeḍ rqiq. Syin iwala yal afrux ggtent telmas-is deg yiwet n tewsit (genre), dɣa yesteqsa iman-is : ma d win iwumi qqaren Axellaq i igan akka annect-a, amek yeεni ara s-yini wayi ad s-geɣ aqamum akka, wayeḍ akken nniḍen, neɣ ad ten-ssemxlafeɣ kan deg teɣmi n rric ? Yerna mačči kan ɣur yefrax i llant lewhayem, ula si tama n iɣersiwen imeqqranen : amek yiwen deg leḥcic i ikess wayeḍ yettseyyiḍ iɣersiwen-nni at leḥcic s yiman-nsen ? Yuɣ lḥal tamella[10] ur telli deg teẓgi neɣ daxel n yillel, ayen izemren i kra-iḍen yečč-it !Imenferrawen

Akka, Darwin mi yekfa tazrawt-is deg imenfarrawen i d-igemmer, yufa belli ayen i ten-yessemgarden d abrid kan i d-wwin deg tudert-nsen d twennaṭ ideg εacen ; dɣa win i d-yekkren deg tegzrit anda yeqwa lḥebb n yemɣan, iṛebba aqamum zuren iǧehden swayes ara yerẓ tuččit-is, ma d win nniḍen iεacen anda akken txuṣṣ, itetten kan ibεac, ayla-s netta iruḥ s teɣzi, yemmug i tseddi[11] amek ara d-yeṭṭef ayen meẓẓiyen. Wa d amedya kan amecṭuḥ, maca Darwin ssya i iṣadd armi yessegrawel tussna n imudar s lekmal-is. Yufa ziɣ d agama i d-yelhan s kra din ; yella wanda ḍerrun lumuṛ s usamma[12] kan d wamek i d-yewwi lḥal, maca dima d talmest iǧehden deg iɣersiwen, meḥsub tin iḥerzen tigemmi tajinit (patrimoine gnétique) yelhan i d-igerrin tettidir. Daymi aṭas i inegren segmi d-tebda tudert ar assa. Ma d tigemmi-a tajinit i yeṭṭfen amkan deg tsilunin[13] n wudus[14], neɣ amek tettεeddi gar tsitiwin, Darwin netta ur tt-yefhim ara di tallit-is, d taɣnwt-is (instinct) kan tamassnant d termit-is deg uḥekker d ufraẓ n lumuṛ i t-yeǧǧan ad yaru fell-as ; d acu ur ssawḍen ad tt-fehmen armi d talemmast n lqern wis XX, ad d-nuɣal ɣur-s.

Tabadut d usissen

Deg tesnudert, tamhazt d ayen yerzan inbeddalen i d-yettilin deg telmas timuddirin ɣef teɣzi n wakud ; d yiwen umazrar i d-yeṭṭfen seg talɣiwin timezwura maḍi armi d imudar n tura. Amezruy n tenhazt n tudert yezmer ad d-yettwiglem s yiwen waddag meqqren neɣ aṭas n waddagen n tgetjinit (poygénie).

Tamhazt tcudd ɣer usnulfu n telmas, maca seg-s daɣen i d-itekk ungar-nsent. Dɣa d turda n wefran agaman i d-yessumer Darwin i yettilin deffir inbeddalen-a, ulamma aṭas  ineḍruyen i itekkin uqbel tuffɣa ɣer tsemlilt taneggarut i d-ijemmlen tiẓri n tenzeht (la théorie d’évolution). D acu tura aṭas imassanen i yettagin ula d awal-a n « tiẓri », imi ɣur-sen d ayen yessurfen amecwar-nni s wayen i d-tufa tussna tineggura-ya s wallalen atraren, ladɣa s igmaḍ n tesnudert talayant (biologique moléculaire) i d-yufan s tseddi, d amedya, amek yecrek w ADN n wemdan d yibki. Maca si tama nniḍen, d udem-a n lqerban gar umdan d uɣersiw i yeǧǧan aṭas n leṣwat ad ilin mgal tikti n temhazt ; llan gar-asen ula d imusnawen i iεerḍen ad gen tizrawin-nsen s webrid-iḍen iɣef teɣleb tezrirt[15] n teflest d tektiwin timasɣannin (n ddin). Amedya, qqaren belli d tidet, amdan yezmer ad yili iεedda-d ɣef waṭas n tsurifin uqbel ad yaweḍ akka d amdan, maca yella kan w’i iwellhen inbeddalen i d-yeḍran si tazwara, meḥsub d Rebbi-nni iss i ttamnen ; aya d ayen iwumi semman « asɣiwes amegzu » ( le dessein intelligent).

Imenzayen imuta 

Di tilawt, ur d-yeḍḥa yewεer i waṭas n medden akken ad gren tikti n temhazt di lbal-nsen, armi d-tettbin tumelt[16]-is akka sufella d ayen ur iqqebbel wallaɣ, ladɣa ɣer wid i d-yekkren s tikti tamensayt[17] n wexlaq imudar. Imi deg tidet-is, tamhazt tettarra laṣel n wemdan d wayen akk yeddren ɣef akal, ama d aɣersiw neɣ d imɣi, akken yebɣu yili meqqer neɣ mecṭuḥ, alamma d yiwet kan n tsilunt si ṣṣenf abaktiri ideg i d-tebda tudert deg waman ahat ma drus 3,5 imelyaren iseggasen. Ayen i d-yettxebbiren ɣef waya d imikrudusen (microrganismes) i ttafen ar tura deg ifuṣileTamhazt2n, yerna tikwal irennu yettibεid later-nsen deg wakud.

Lḥaṣun ɣef akken d-teqqar tussna tatrart, d tabaktirit-a  tamikruskupit i yebdan tettimɣur mi d-tufa iman-is deg waman ur nmelleḥ armi tuɣal s talɣa n twekka tusbiṭ yettbinen ; syin mi tkemmel deg unegmu teṭṭef ṣṣifa n yislem. Ifuṣilen[18] n « iselman-a » ttafen-ten dɣa s waṭas ɣer tamiwin igarawen (océans) ; ihi d kra seg-sen i d-yeffɣen, seg wid yesεan tiferrawin tičaranin, zgan tteḥnunufen-d armi d-gran deg wakal aquran, dɣa d tifarriwen-nni i yuɣalen d iḍarren syin d afella. Yiwen uspisiman seg iqburen i ufan deg usammar n Groenland ahat wwḍen 460 imelyan iseggasen segmi iεac.

D widak i d-yeǧǧan igḍad, iḥraraden[19], ikalmanen[20] yecban imqerqar, akked isaṭṭaḍen ; syin akk i d-kkan. Deg tallit-nni tamezwarut d idinusuṛen i igman s tɣawla, yerna tuɣ llan am yegḍad kan, ma d wiyaḍ merra wwin-d acḥal di ṣṣifa n uɣersiw-nni i iṛebban tiḍartin yuɣal ileḥḥu ɣef rebεa, yella d ameɣẓaz[21] icuban s aɣerda, d netta i d ajaddi n isaṭṭaḍen merra ideg nella nekni. Ur yebda gemmu-s d inbeddalen-is ɣer waṭas n telmas armi negren idinusuṛen si 66 imelyan iseggasen-aya. Dɣa ɣef teɣzi n imelyan n lesnin, yebḍa ɣef waṭas n twaculin tiɣersanin, gar tid yettseyyiḍen d tid itetten leḥcic, d wiyaḍ ukud llan iprimaten, asellun[22] yesdukklen amdan d waṭas n yibkan. Maca iprimaten mgaraden, llan imecṭaḥ, llan imeqqranen, ihi seg imeqqranen-nni i d-yeqqers umdan.

 

Tamhazt n wemdan

Yella da lɣilaḍ mucaεen ideg ilaq ad d-nebdu. Tuget n medden seg wid ur nwala tussna si lqerb, deg tmettiyin akk nprimateshommechimpanzesquelettesdp ddunit, qqaren ma seg yibki i d-nekka s tidet, amek armi ibkan n wassa ur ttuɣalen ara d imdanen ? Netta da llant snat n tlufa i ilaqen ad ttusegzint. Tazwara, anbeddal-a mačči d ayen i d-yettilin deg teswiεt kan akka, d inig ameqqran deg imyaten n luluf n lesnin, ur iẓerr yiwen s wallen-is ma ur inuda ara deg ifuṣilen, imi yettili-d s leεqel maḍi. Tin ɣer-s, mačči seg ibki-a n tura s yiman-is i d-iruḥ umdan. Ma d tura akka aɣersiw i ittemcabin maḍi ɣer umdan si tama tansudrant, d acampanzi (chimpanzé) i yettidiren deg Tefriqt, acku send ayen ara yilin gar 6 d 8 imelyan n lesnin, yella ujaddi-nneɣ yiwen. Meḥsub kra seg telmest-a i ɣ-icerkan yella wayen i d-yeḍran deg udus-nsen ; ladɣa taḍermist (mutation) i yerzan allaɣ, d tin i yellan deffir n tilin n wemdan, ulamma amdan-nni amezwaru yettemcabi ugar ɣer yibki.

 D acu, mi d-yeffeɣ si twacult tasnudrant iwumi qqaren homonidae, amdan yebda yettenkar ɣef sin iḍarren, yessemras allaɣ-is, ikemmel tamhazt-is deg waṭas imecwaren, segmi yuɣal d tawsit (genre) iwumi qqaren homo : dɣa yella : homo-habilis, uqbel azal n 2 imelyan n lesnin deg Tefriqt usammar d wenẓul  (i isqedcen yakan times, yenjer ablaḍ d amrig yerna yeffeɣ si Tefriqt) ; homo-eretcus uqebel 1,8 imelyan, d netta i ikecmen Turuft ; ma ɣer tagara d homo-sapiens i d-yellan si 300 000 iseggasen, i yuɣalen yettxemmim s tidet, d nekni dɣa akken nella tura ; yella neanderthal ɣer tama-nneɣ deg tewsit homo, iεac ula deg Turuft, maca winna yenger.

Tisura n tesnudert talayant deg tussna n temhazt

Iban, akken ad εeddint ṣṣifat si tsuta ɣer tayeḍ gar imudar, ilaq kan ad tili tanga[23] ara tt-yawin. Aya ifhem-it Darwin, maca win i d-yeldin tifrat ɣer tmukrist-a i tikelt tamezwarut, d Uṭrici Mendel (1822 – 1884) i yellan d aqessis (prêtre), d acu yelha-d daɣen d inadiyen-a i iḥemmel, imi tuɣ yeɣra deg tfellaḥt . Dɣa d netta i igan llsas i tussna tamynut ara d-ilalen syin d asawen, iwumi neqqar tajinitit, ulamma imahilen-is ruḥen ttwattun acḥal iseggasen d wamek εawden gan-asen ccan. Lḥaṣun, d netta i d-yufan isuḍaf  iwumi qqaren ara assa Isuḍaf n mendel, d ayen yerzan abrid n umcabi gar umudar d baba-s, neɣ jeddi-s, neɣ gma-s (deg yiwet n tsuta) atg. (ad d-nawi fell-as deg umagrad-iḍen). Yerna netta ɣef yimɣan i iga tirmitin-is, meḥsub d ajilban i yebda iteẓẓu-t ɣef waṭas n tikwal armi d-yessufeɣ igmaḍ ineggura.800px-DNA

Maca wid i d-yesfehmen tajitinit s tidet, d Watson akked  Crick deg useggas n 1953, asmi d-ufan amek yemmug w ADN s tseddi. ADN d alay[24] asnudran aɣezfan, n uɣurmi (nayau) n tsilunin akked kra ivirusen, deg-s i yettwaxan yisalli ajini s wudem akimyan. Ihi ma zik imusnwen tuɣ zerrfen s tmuɣli kan d ufraẓ n termitin, seg yimir uɣalen sεan tanga yettwallasen iɣer tcudd kra yellan d ṣṣifa yesεa umudar, izemren ad ssrewsen seg telmest ɣer tayeḍ ; dɣa tura mačči kan d iusḍaf n Mendel i yuɣalen ttwazrawen s wudem ufrin, ssawḍen yimnuda fehmen yess ula d anda zedɣen kra n waṭṭanen yettεeddin si tsuta ɣer tayeḍ, ayen ara iεiwnen i uεqal-nsen ɣas qbel talalit ; dɣa kka i ssulin ijinumen (génomes) n kra imudar. Ajinum d ayen i d-ijemmlen isallen ijiniyen icudden ɣer kra n telmest, win n wemdan fkan-t-id di 2003. Asmi t-srewsen ɣer win n yibki acampanzi ufan ttamcabin alamma d 99%, ayen yesswehmen lεamma tamassnant, imi tilawt n temhazt tuɣal tban-d s wanzaten ufrinen, ur d-teqqim ara tettwaḍfar s ifuṣilen kan d tɣessiwin tiqburin, ladaɣa ma neẓra belli widak yettili lexṣas deg-sen ɣas akken ttaken-d isalli iqumen m’ara ilin.

Yerna am akken yenna Richard Dawkins[25], win yebɣan kan ad s-d-yessukes kra i tidet-a, ad iruḥ ad d-inadi taɣessa n wemdan ara yesεun ugar n 8 imelyan di leεmer ; d lmuḥal, imi amdan tuɣ ur yewwiḍ ara talɣa i nesεa tura. Kifkif ula i iɣersiwen akk i nessen, aqjun neɣ awtul, ur ttafen iɣsan-nsen ala seg tilla-nni kan mi qqlen s tumelt-nsen n tura.

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©2017 Tighzert

 


[1] Tamhazt : évolution. [2] Talmest, tilmas : espèce [3] Turda : hypothèse
[4] Afran agaman : sélection naturelle. [5] Tazrawt : étude [6] Aɣiwen : faculté [7] Aɣerrabu : navire [8] Tuɣḍaṭ : mission [9] Amesnakal : géologue [10] Tamella : rreḥma [11] Tiseddi : précision
[12] Asamma : hasard [13] Tasilunt : cellule [14] Udus : organisme [15] Tazrirt : influence
[16] Tumelt : aspect [17] Amensay : tradititionnel [18] Afuṣil : fossile [19] Aḥrarad : reptile
[20] Akalman = akal+aman : ttidiren deg wakal deg waman = ambphibien. [21] Ameɣẓaz : rongeur [22] Asellun : ordre [23] Tanga : matière [24] Alay : molécule (amawal n Dahmane Mazed) [25] D amesnuder aglizi, d amassan deg temhazt, ilul di 1941.



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9 septembre, 2017 à 14 h 34 min


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